Faculty & Staff Details

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Thomas Giambelluca, Professor

Degree: Ph.D., Geography, University of Hawai`i at Manoa, 1983.

Office Location:
Phone Number: (808) 956-7390
Fax Number:
Email: thomas@hawaii.edu



Ph.D., Geography, University of Hawai`i at Manoa, 1983. :

M.A., Geography, University of Miami, 1977.:

B.S. (cum laude), Geography and Mathematics, University of Miami, Florida, 1974.

Courses Taught

GEOG 300 - Introduction to Climatology

GEOG 401 - Implications of Global Change

GEOG 402 - Agricultural Climatology

GEOG 405 - Water in the Environment

GEOG 600 - Graduate Seminar in Climatology

GEOG 750 - Graduate Seminar in Biogeography


The focus of my research is on the interaction between the atmosphere and the land surface in areas affected by human use. On the basis of field research in the Amazon Basin and northern Thailand, I am studying the effects of tropical deforestation on climate and hydrology. Here in Hawai`i, I am conducting field and modeling projects on climate and natural vegetation, restoration of degraded lands, and water resource management under changing land use and a warming climate.


  • Fox, F.M., Vogler, J.B., Sen, O.L., Ziegler, A.D., Giambelluca, T.W. (In press) Simulating land-cover change in Montane Mainland Southeast Asia. Environmental Research Letters.

  • Cuo, L., Giambelluca, T.W., and Ziegler, A.D. 2011. Lumped parameter sensitivity analysis of a distributed hydrological model within tropical and temperature catchments. Hydrological Processes 25, doi:10.1002/hyp.8017.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., and Gerold, G. 2011. Hydrology and biogeochemistry of tropical montane cloud forests. Chapter 11 in D.F. Levia, D.E. Carlyle-Moses, and T. Tanaka (eds.), Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry: Synthesis of Research and Future Directions. Ecological Studies Series, No. 216, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany.

  • Diaz, H.F., Giambelluca, T.W., and Eischeid, J.K. 2011. Changes in the vertical profiles of mean temperature and humidity in the Hawaiian Islands. Global and Planetary Change, 77: 21-25, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.02.007.

  • Elison Timm, O., Diaz, H.F., Giambelluca, T.W., and Takahashi, M. 2011. Projection of changes in the frequency of heavy rain events over Hawai‘i based on leading Pacific climate modes. Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D04109, doi:10.1029/2010JD014923.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., DeLay, J.K., Nullet, M.A., Scholl, M.A., and Gingerich, S.B. 2011. Canopy water balance of windward and leeward Hawaiian cloud forests on Haleakalā, Maui, Hawai‘i. Hydrological Processes 25: 438-447, doi:10.1002/hyp.7738.

  • Takahashi, M., Giambelluca, T.W., Mudd, R.G., DeLay, J.K., Nullet, M.A., and Asner, G.P. 2011. Rainfall partitioning and cloud water interception in native forest and invaded forest in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Hydrological Processes 25: 448-464, doi:10.1002/hyp.7797.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., DeLay, J.K., Nullet, M.A., Scholl, M.A., and Gingerich, S.B. 2010. Interpreting canopy water balance and fog screen observations: Separating cloud water from wind-blown rainfall at two contrasting forest sites in Hawai‘i. Chapter 36 in L.A. Bruijnzeel, F.N. Scatena, and L.S. Hamilton (eds.) Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Science for Conservation and Management, Cambridge University Press, pp. 342-351.

  • DeLay, J.K., and Giambelluca, T.W. 2010. History of cloud water interception research in Hawai‘i. Chapter 35 in L.A. Bruijnzeel, F.N. Scatena, and L.S. Hamilton (eds.) Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Science for Conservation and Management, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 332-341.

  • Guardiola-Claramonte, M., Fox, J., Giambelluca, T.W., and Troch, P.A. 2010. Changing land use in the Golden Triangle: Where the rubber meets the road. In J. Roumasset, K. Burnett, and A. Balisacan (eds.) Sustainability Science for Watershed Landscapes. ISEAS Publishing, Singapore, pp. 235-250.

  • Guardiola-Claramonte, M., Troch, P., Ziegler, A., Giambelluca, T., Vogler, J., Nullet, M. 2010. Hydrologic effects of the expansion of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) in a tropical catchment. Ecohydrology, doi:10.1002/eco.110.

  • Peñuelas, J., Sardans, J., Llusià, J., Owen, S., Carnicer, J., Giambelluca, T.W., Rezende, E.L., Waite, M., and Niinemets, Ü. 2009. Faster returns on ‘leaf economics’ and different biogeochemical niche in invasive plant species. Global Change Biology doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02054.x.

  • Ziegler, A.D., Bruun, T.B., Guardiola-Claramonte, M., Giambelluca, T.W., Lawrence, D., and Nguyen, T.L. 2009. Environmental consequences of the demise in swidden cultivation in Montane Mainland Southeast Asia: Hydrology and geomorphology. Human Ecology 37: 361-373, doi:10.1007/s10745-009-9258-x.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., Scholz, F.G., Bucci, S.J., Meinzer, F.C., Goldstein, G., Hoffmann, W.A., Franco, A.C., and Buchert, M.P. 2009. Evapotranspiration and energy balance of Brazilian savannas with contrasting tree density. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 149: 1365-1376, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2009.03.006.

  • Ziegler, A.D., Giambelluca, T.W., Nullet, M.A., Sutherland, R.A., Tantasarin, C., Vogler, J.B., and Negishi, J.N. 2009. Throughfall in an evergreen-dominated forest stand in northern Thailand: Comparison of mobile and stationary methods. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 149: 373-384, doi:10.1016/agrformet.2008.09.002.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., Martin, R.E., Asner, G.P., Huang, M., Mudd, R,G., Nullet, M.A., DeLay, J.K., and Foote, D. 2009. Evapotranspiration and energy balance of native wet montane cloud forest in Hawai‘i. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 149: 230-243, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2008.08.004.

  • Arcand, N., Kagawa, A.K., Sack, L., and Giambelluca, T.W. 2008. Scaling of frond form in Hawaiian tree fern Cibotium glaucum: Compliance with global trends and application for field estimation. Biotropica 40: 686-691, doi:10.1111/j.1744-7429.2008.00434.x.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., Diaz, H.F., and Luke, M.S.A. 2008. Secular temperature changes in Hawai‘i. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L12702, doi:10.1029/2008GL034377.

  • Cuo, L., Giambelluca, T.W., Ziegler, A.D., and Nullet, M.A. 2008. "The roles of roads and agricultural land use in altering hydrological processes in Nam Mae Rim Watershed, northern Thailand," Hydrological Processes, doi:10.1002/hyp.7039.

  • Guardiola-Claramonte, M., Troch, P., Ziegler, A.D., Giambelluca, T.W, Vogler, J.B., and Nullet, M.A. 2008. "Local hydrological effects of introducing non-native vegetation in a tropical catchment," Ecohydrology 1:13-22, doi:10.1002/eco.3.

  • Bucci, S.J., Scholz, F.G., Goldstein, G., Hoffmann, W.A., Meinzer, F.C., Franco, A.C., Giambelluca, T.W., and Miralles-Wilhelm, F. 2008. "Controls on stand transpiration and soil water utilization along a tree density gradient in a neotropical savanna," Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 148:839-849, doi:10.1016/ j.agrformet.2007.11.013.

  • Scholl, M.A., Giambelluca, T.W., Gingerich, S.B., Nullet, M.A., and Loope, L.L. 2007. "Cloud water in windward and leeward mountain forests: The stable isotope signature of orographic cloud water," Water Resources Research 43, W12411, doi:10.1029/2007WR006011.

  • Ziegler, A.D., Giambelluca, T.W., Sutherland, R.A., Nullet, M.A., and Vien, T.D. 2007. "Soil translocation by weeding on steep-sloped swidden fields in northern Vietnam," Soil and Tillage Research 96:219-233, doi:10.1016/j.still.2007.06.009.

  • Ebel, B.A., Loague, K., Dietrich, W.E., Montgomery, D.R., Torres, R., Anderson, S.P., and Giambelluca, T.W. 2007. "Near-surface hydrologic response for a steep, unchanneled catchment near Coos Bay, Oregon: 1. Sprinking Experiments," American Journal of Science 307:678-708.

  • Ziegler, A.D., Giambelluca, T.W., Plondke, D., Leisz, S., Tran, L.T., Fox, J., Nullet, M.A., Vogler, J.B., Troung, D.M., and Vien, T.D. 2007. "Hydrological consequences of landscape fragmentation in mountainous northern Vietnam: Buffering of Hortonian overland flow," Journal of Hydrology 337:52-67.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., and Luke, M.S.A. 2007. "Climate change in Hawai'i's mountains," Mountain Views 1(2):13-18.

  • Cao, G., Giambelluca, T.W., Stevens, D., and Schroeder, T. 2007. "Inversion variability in the Hawaiian trade wind regime," Journal of Climate 20:1145-1160.

  • Cuo, L., Giambelluca, T.W., Ziegler, A.D., Nullet, M.A. 2006. "Use of the distributed hydrology soil vegetation model to study road effects on hydrological processes in Pang Khum Experiemental Watershed, northern Thailand," Forest Ecology and Management 224: 81-94.

  • Ziegler, A.D., Tran, L.T., Giambelluca, T.W., Sidle, R.C., Sutherland, R.A., Nullet, M.A., Vien, T.D. 2006. Effective slope lengths for buffering hillslope surface runoff in fragmented landscapes in northern Vietnam. Forest Ecology and Management 224:104-118.

  • Ziegler, A.D., Negishi, J., Sidle, R.C., Preechapanya, P., Sutherland, R.A., Giambelluca, T.W., Jaiaree, S. 2006. "Reduction of stream sediment concentration by a riparian buffer: filtering of road runoff in disturbed headwater basins of montane mainland southeast Asia," Journal of Environmental Quality 35:151-162.

  • Giambelluca, T.W. 2005. "Land use and water resources under a changing climate," Chapter 189 in M.G. Anderson and J.J. McDonnell (eds.), Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences, Volume 5. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, U.K.

  • Giambelluca, T.W. 2005. "Trade winds and the trade wind inversion," in J.E. Oliver (ed.), Encyclopedia of World Climatology, Springer, New York, pp. 731-732.

  • Ziegler, A.D., Giambelluca, T.W., Sutherland, R.A., Nullet, M.A., Yarnasarn, S., Pinthong, J., and Jaiaree, S. 2004. "Toward understanding the cumulative impacts of roads in agricultural watersheds of northern Thailand," Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment 104:145-158.

  • Ziegler, A.D., Giambelluca, T.W., Tran, L.T., Vana, T.T., Nullet, M.A., Fox, J., Vien, T.D., Pinthong, J.,Maxwell, J.F., and Evett, S. 2004. "Hydrological consequences of landscape fragmentation in mountainous Northern Vietnam: evidence of accelerated overland flow generation," Journal of Hydrology 287:124-146.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., Ziegler, A.D., Nullet, M.A., Dao, T.M., and Tran, L.T. 2003. "Transpiration in a small tropical forest patch," Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 117:1-22.

  • Giambelluca, T.W. 2002. "Hydrology of altered tropical forest," Hydrological Processes 16:1665-1669.

  • Ziegler, A.D., Giambelluca, T.W., Sutherland, R.A. 2002. "Improved method for modelling sediment transport on unpaved roads using KINEROS2 and dynamic erodibility," Hydrological Processes 16:3079-3089.

  • Ziegler, A.D., Giambelluca, T.W. Sutherland, R.A. 2001. "Erosion prediction on unpaved mountain roads in northern Thailand: validation of dynamic erodibility modelling using KINEROS2," Hydrological Processes 15:337-358.

  • Ziegler, A.D., Giambelluca, T.W. Sutherland, R.A. Vana, T.T. and Nullet, M.A. 2001. "Horton overland flow contribution to runoff on unpaved mountain roads: A case study in northern Thailand," Hydrological Processes 15:3203-3208.

  • Ziegler, A.D., Sutherland, R.A., Giambelluca, T.W. 2001. "Interstorm surface preparation and sediment detachment by vehicle traffic on unpaved mountain roads," Earth Surface Processes Landforms 26:235-250 (invited).

  • Ziegler, A.D., Sutherland, R.A., Giambelluca, T.W. 2001. "On the trail of erosion: the importance of footpaths in accelerating Horton overland flow in an agricultural watershed in northern Thailand," Geomorphology 41:249-262.

  • Melcher, P.J., Cordell, S., Jones, T., Scowcroft, P.G., Niemczura, W., Giambelluca, T.W., and Goldstein, G. 2000. "Supercooling capacity increases from sea level to tree line in the Hawaiian tree species Metrosideros polymorpha," International Journal of Plant Science 161:369-379.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., Nullet, M., Ziegler, A.D., and Tran, L. 2000. "Latent and sensible energy flux over deforested land surfaces in the eastern Amazon and northern Thailand," Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 21: 107-130.

  • Ziegler, A.D., Sutherland, R.A., Giambelluca, T.W. 2000. "Partitioning total erosion on unpaved roads into splash and hydraulic components: influence of surface preparation and dynamic erodibility," Water Resources Research 36:2187-2791.

  • Ziegler, A.D., Warren, S.D., Perry, J.L., and Giambelluca, T.W. 2000. "Reassessment of revegetation strategies for Kaho`olawe Island, Hawai‘i," Journal of Range Management 53:106-112.

  • Ziegler, A.D., Sutherland, R.A., and Giambelluca, T.W. 2000. "Runoff generation and sediment production on unpaved roads, footpaths, and agricultural land surfaces in northern Thailand," Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 25:519-534.

  • Ziegler, A.D., Chun-Smith, A.A., Perry, J.L., Egan, J.R., Garcia, S.K.N., and Giambelluca, T.W. 2000. "Assessment of the Native Hawaiian Plant Society Restoration Projects, Kaho`olawe, Island, Hawai‘i," Ecological Restoration 18:26-33.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., Fox, J., Yarnasarn, S., Onibutr, P., and Nullet, M.A. 1999. "Dry-season radiation balance of land covers replacing forest in northern Thailand," Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 95:53-65.

  • Woodcock, D.W., Perry, J.L., and Giambelluca, T.W. 1999. "Occurrence of indigenous species in a middle-elevation Melaleuca plantation on O`ahu (Hawaiian Islands)," Pacific Science 53:159-167.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., and Schroeder, T.A. 1998. "Climate," In S.P. Juvik, J.O. Juvik, and T.R. Paradise (eds.), Atlas of Hawai`i. University of Hawai`i Press.

  • Loope, L.L. and Giambelluca, T.W. 1998. "Vulnerability of island tropical montane cloud forests to climate change, with special reference to East Maui, Hawaii," Climatic Change 39:503-517.

  • Ziegler, A.D., and Giambelluca, T.W. 1998. "Influence of revegetation efforts on hydrologic response and erosion, Kaho`olawe Island, Hawai`i," Journal of Land Degradation and Development 9:189-206.

  • Nakao, P., Perry, L.J., Chun-Smith, A.A., Giambelluca, T.W., and Ziegler, A.D. 1998. "Status of Erythrina sandwicensis in the NifTAL experiment site, Kaho`olawe, Hawai`i: A reassessment," Newsletter of the Hawaiian Botanical Society 36:57,59-63.

  • Ziegler, A.D., and Giambelluca, T.W. 1997. "Importance of rural roads as sources areas for runoff in mountainous areas of northern Thailand," Journal of Hydrology 196:204-229.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., Holscher, D., Bastos, T.X., Frazao, R.R., Nullet, M.A., and Ziegler, A.D. 1997. "Observations of albedo and radation balance over post-forest land surfaces in eastern Amazon Basin," Journal of Climate 10:919-928.

  • Ziegler, A.D., and Giambelluca, T.W. 1997. "Hydrologic change and accelerated erosion in northern Thailand: Simulating the impacts of rural roads and agriculture," Explorations in Southeast Asian Studies 1:36-47.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., Ridgley, M.A., and Nullet, M.A. 1996. "Water balance, climate change, and land-use planning in the Pearl Harbor Basin, Hawai`i," International Journal of Water Resources Development 12:515-530.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., Tran, L.T., Ziegler, A.L., Menard, T.P., and Nullet, M.A. 1996. "Soil-vegetation-atmosphere processes: Simulation and field measurement for deforested sites in northern Thailand," Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres) 101:25,867-25,885.

  • Goldstein, G., Drake, D.R., Melcher, P., Giambelluca, T.W., and Heraux, J. 1996. "Photosynthetic gas exchange and temperature-induced damage in seedlings of the tropical alpine species Argyroxiphium sandwicense," Oecologia 106:298-307.

  • Loague, K., Bernknopf, R.L., Green, R.E., and Giambelluca, T.W. 1996. "Uncertainty of groundwater vulnerability assessments for agricultural regions in Hawaii: Review," Journal of Environmental Quality 25:475-490.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., Loague, K., Green, R.E., and Nullet, M.A. 1996. "Uncertainty in recharge estimation: Impacts on groundwater vulnerability assessments for the Pearl Harbor Basin, O`ahu, Hawai`i," Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 23:85-112.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., and Henderson-Sellers, A. (eds.) 1996. Climate Change: Developing Southern Hemisphere Perspectives. John Wiley and Sons, UK. xii+475 pp.

  • Giambelluca, T.W. 1996. "Tropical land cover change: Characterizing the post-forest land surface," In T.W. Giambelluca and A. Henderson-Sellers (eds.), Climate Change: Developing Southern Hemisphere Perspectives. John Wiley and Sons, UK, pp. 293-318.

  • Loague, K., Lloyd, D., Giambelluca, T.W., Nguyen, A., and Sakata, B. 1996. "Land misuse and hydrologic response: Kaho`olawe, Hawai`i," Pacific Science 50:1-35.

  • Loague, K., Miyahira, R.N., Green, R.E., Oki, D.S., Giambelluca, T.W., and Schneider, R.C. 1995. "Chemical leaching near the Waiawa Shaft, Oahu, Hawaii: 2. Modeling results," Ground Water 33:124-138.

  • Loague, K., Miyahira, R.N., Oki, D.S., Green, R.E., Schneider, R.C., and Giambelluca, T.W. 1994. "Chemical leaching near the Waiawa Shaft, Oahu, Hawaii: 1. Field experiments and laboratory analysis," Ground Water 32:986-996.

  • Melcher, P.J., Goldstein, G., Meinzer, F.C., Minyard, B., Giambelluca, T.W., and Loope, L. 1994. "Determinants of thermal balance in the Hawaiian giant rosette plant, Argyroxiphium sandwicense," Oecologia 98:412- 418.

  • Giambelluca, T., and Sanderson, M. 1993. "The water balance and climatic classification," Chapter 4, M. Sanderson, ed., Prevailing Trade Winds, Weather and Climate in Hawai`i, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, x+126 pp

  • Giambelluca, T. 1993. "Climate and groundwater," Chapter 5, Part IV., M. Sanderson, ed., Prevailing Trade Winds, Weather and Climate in Hawai`i, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, x+126 pp.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., McKenna, D., and Ekern, P.C. 1992. "An automated recording atmometer: 1. Calibration and testing," Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 62:109-125.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., and Nullet, D. 1992. "An Automated recording atmometer: 2. Evaporation measurement on a high elevation transect in Hawaii," Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 62:127-138.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., and Nullet, D. 1992. "Evaporation at high elevations in Hawaii," Journal of Hydrology 136:219-235.

  • Ridgley, M.A., and Giambelluca, T.W. 1992. "Urbanization, land-use planning, and groundwater management on central Oahu, Hawaii," Environment and Planning B 19:317-336.

  • Nullet, D., and Giambelluca, T.W. 1992. "Radiation climatology through the trade-wind inversion," Physical Geography 13(1):66-80.

  • Giambelluca T.W., and Nullet, D. 1991. "Influence of the trade-wind inversion on the climate of a leeward mountain slope in Hawaii," Climate Research 1(3):207-216.

  • Ridgley, M.A., and Giambelluca, T.W. 1991. "Drought, groundwater management and land use planning: the case of central Oahu, Hawaii," Applied Geography 11:289-307.

  • Nullet, D., and Giambelluca T.W. 1990. "Winter evaporation on a mountain slope, Hawaii," Journal of Hydrology 112:257-265.

  • Loague, K.M., Green, R.E., Giambelluca, T.W., Liang, T.C., and Yost, R.S. 1990. "Impact of uncertainty in soil, climatic, and chemical information in a pesticide leaching assessment," Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 5:171-194.

  • Loague, K.M., Giambelluca, T.W., Green, R.E., Liu, C.C.K., Liang, T.C., and Oki, D.S. 1989. "Simulation of organic chemical movement in Hawaii soils with PRZM: 2. Predicting deep penetration of DBCP, EDB, and TCP," Pacific Science 43(4):362-383.

  • Oki, D.S., and Giambelluca, T.W. 1989. "Groundwater contamination by nematicides: Influence of recharge timing under pineapple crop," Water Resources Bulletin 25(2):285-294.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., Nullet, D., and Nullet, M.A. 1988. "Agricultural drought on south-central Pacific islands," Professional Geographer 40(4):404-415.

  • Nullet, D., and Giambelluca, T.W. 1988. "Risk analysis of seasonal agricultural drought on low Pacific islands" Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 42:229-239.

  • Oki, D.S., and Giambelluca, T.W. 1987. "DBCP, EDB, and TCP contamination of groundwater in Hawaii," Ground Water 25(6):693-702.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., and Oki, D.S. 1987. "Temporal dissagregation of monthly rainfall data for water balance modeling." In S.I. Solomon, M. Beran, and W. Hogg (eds.), The Influence of Climate Changes and Climatic Variability on Hydrological Regime and Water Resources. IAHS Press, UK, pp. 255-267.

  • Giambelluca, T.W. 1986. "Land use effects on the water balance of a tropical island," National Geographic Research 2(2):125-151.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., Nullet, M.A., and Schroeder, T.A. 1986. Hawaii Rainfall Atlas, Report R76, Hawai‘i Division of Water and Land Development, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Honolulu. vi + 267 p.

  • Giambelluca, T.W., Lau, L.S., Fok, Y.S., and Schroeder, T.A. 1984. Rainfall frequency study for O`ahu. Division of Water and Land Development, Department of Land and Natural Resources, State of Hawai‘i. 232 p.